Donuts Flowchart

 The following flowchart shows the process diagram of producing cake doughnuts, yeast-raised doughnuts and frozen doughnuts.

Frozen doughnuts go through the same processes as yeast-raised doughnuts, up to the frying stage. From there, the donuts are packed and frozen, for delivery to stores, cafes, caterers, clubs and institutions.

Frozen doughnuts offer the convenience of a supply of cooked donuts that only needed to be thawed (using the Thermolizer) and heated and glazed (using the Thermoglaze system).

For more information about donut machines (fryers, donut production systems, Thermoglaze system, accessories) contact RVO Enterprises at 02 9740 5122, send an email to, or enquire through RVO Info Central by sending your comment at the bottom of this article.


Sample Doughnut Formulations

Formulations for baked products will vary from country to country and from company to company. Many companies guard their formulations assiduously. The following recipes can be used as reference formulations or as starting point for developing products. [1]

These recipes are given in baker’s percent (see Different Methods of Expressing Baked-Products Formulations, at the end of this article).


The recipes above are expressed in baker’s percent.

Baker’s percent is the term used by the baking industry to describe the amount of each ingredient  by weight for a “recipe” or formula compared with the weight of flour at 100%. [2]

Note that other baked product formulations may be expressed in another method besides baker’s percent. The table below shows the difference between the different methods.

Different Methods of Expressing Baked-Product Formulations

There are different methods of expressing baked-product formulations that have evolved over time: three of the most commonly used are baker’s percent (baker’s %), total weight percent (also known as true formula or true percent) and ingredient weight. [1]

Commercially, bakeries rely on premix suppliers for high quality standard donut formulations, with a variety of formulations to select from, in 10, 15, 20 or 25 kg packages. These most commonly contain all of the ingredients, except water and yeast, although some will provide for the baker adding other materials. There are many suppliers for these mixes, each of them having their own proprietary formulas.

For a list of premix suppliers, click here.


1. Cauvain, S. and L. Young, Baked products: science, technology and practice. 2006: Blackwell Publishing.

2. Yui, Y.H., ed. Handbook of Food Products Manufacturing. ed. R.C. Chandan, et al. 2007, John Wiley & Sons.

Principles of Good Doughnut Production

Cake doughnuts are unique among all bakery products since they are produced by depositing a fluid batter directly into a very hot, fluid frying medium. The final shape of the doughnut is in no way controlled by any external influence but determined by the formula, precise scaling of ingredients, consistent ingredient quality, frying fat quality, and effective process controls. Adequate control of all these parameters is probably more critical for cake doughnuts than for any other product produced in the bakery.[1]  

Controls are equally important with yeast-raised doughnuts where factors such as yeast quantity, dough temperature, mixing time, floor time and proving time affect final doughnut quality.  

Important factors in making good doughnuts

In the book “Food Oils and Fats: Technology, Utilization and Nutrition by H Lawson”, Lawson listed the following factors in making good doughnuts:

(Please note that the temperatures in this article were different from the book’s recommendations; the temperatures indicated below have been adjusted to suit Australian conditions. Ingredient amount, time and temperature will vary depending on formulation. Consult your ingredients supplier and equipment manufacturer for exact instructions.)  

1. Good prepared mixes   

Select a mix from a reputable manufacturer and select one of good quality.[2] 

2. Correct water levels   

It is important to observe the correct quantity of water added to the mix to get the proper dough consistency. If the dough has too much water, the doughnuts appear distorted, produce large holes, and absorb more oil. If the dough is too stiff, it results in thick crust, rough, broken surface on one side and excessive absorption of oil in cracks.[2] 

3. Proper dough handling and mixing   

Mixing times depend on the richness of the dough, type of flour, and temperature of the dough. An undermixed dough will result in excessive absorption, coarse texture and irregular shape. An overmixed dough will produce doughnuts with large holes, tight grain and texture, excessive absorption, and a knobby irregular surface.[2] 

4. Proper makeup before frying   

Cake doughnuts   

After adding the right amount of water and correct mixing, the batter (recommended dough temperature 24 °C) should be given a rest period (floor time) of 10-15 min before cutting out into fryer.[3]  The rest period allows the batter to continue to hydrate and the leavening to continue aerating the batter.[1]  

Yeast-raised doughnuts   

Dissolve the yeast in the water, combine all dry ingredients together (including the shortening), gradually add water while mixing at medium speed.[2] 

It is important to observe the optimum dough temperature (28 °C). Give the dough 10 mins floor time.[3] 

Knock back dough and portion and cut dough into approximately 2 kg pieces. Shape into round balls until soft and a smooth surface is achieved, to eliminate air pockets and develop a uniform tension in the dough. Cover with a dry cloth for intermediate proofing (ambient conditions, 15-20 mins). This particular step varies with the type of mix used, for example, when using “no-time” (fermentation eliminated) yeast-raised donut mix. Refer to your supplier for directions.     

       Rolling/sheeting and cutting yeast-raised doughnuts  

Dough is rolled out by hand or fed into a series of sheeters to reduce thickness. The doughnuts can be extruded by air pressure or by a vacuum-extrusion system and then deposited onto automatic proofer trays (eliminating manual handling, common for automated donut production systems), cut out by cutters over the sheet of dough, or cut out by hand.[2] 

      Proofing yeast-raised doughnuts   

The doughnuts should be proofed a little on the “young” side. Twenty minutes is usually sufficient proofing time. Overproofed doughnuts are poor in appearance, lack full flavour, and show increased fat absorption during frying.[2] 

Proof box should be 35 °C to 37.8 °C, with sufficient humidity to prevent crusting. When touched, a properly proofed donut will hold an indentation without collapsing. If the indentation returns to the surface, the donut is underproofed. If the donut collapses when touched, it is overproofed.[4] 

5. Proper frying   

Cake doughnuts   

Doughnut batter in depositor

Cake doughnut batter is pushed through a handheld or a mechanical depositor, where the doughnut shape is produced by the type of plunger or attachment used. Plunger shapes can be plain, star, french cruller, krinkle, old-fashioned, ball, stick, or if using attachments, crescent or dunkerrete. 

Set the fryer to 190°C with clean frying oil and a frying depth of 5 to 8cm. Fill the depositor with batter and check the drop weight. An average weight is 40g per drop. Transfer batter to machine or hand dropper and drop from 2.5 to 4cm into frying oil at 190°C. Allow donuts to rise to the surface of the oil for 30 – 40 seconds and flip over for another 30 – 40 seconds. [3] 

Frying at lower temperatures does not seal the surface rapidly enough, and excessive absorption results. Temperatures above those levels prevent proper expansion and may produce soggy interiors.[2] 

Yeast-raised doughnuts   

Yeast-raised donuts in fryer

Yeast raised doughnuts should be fried at 180°C [3]. The basic principles of correctly frying yeast-raised doughnuts are similar to the principles applied to cake doughnuts, except that yeast doughnuts are generally fried at at a lower temperature for a somewhat longer time.[2]   

6. Proper care of shortening   

Particles that accumulate in the fryer should be removed otherwise the oil will smoke, and can also result in excessive colour darkening, oxidation and development of free fatty acids.[2] 

7. Proper finishing   

Cake doughnuts   

Transfer the cooked donuts to a draining tray and allow to drain for a minute or two before rolling in cinnamon sugar. Allow to cool further if applying icing or other decoration [3].  

Yeast-raised doughnuts should be glazed hot, immediately out of the fryer. The doughnuts are conveyed through the glaze at about 38°C. Using wire screens, the doughnuts go through the glaze and held on the screens until the glaze drains and sets up.[2]   

Yeast-raised doughnuts going through the glaze

Related Article:

Donuts Flowchart


For more information about donut machines (fryers, donut production systems, Thermoglaze system, accessories) contact RVO Enterprises at 02 9740 5122, send an email to, or enquire through RVO Info Central by sending your comment at the bottom of this article.


1. Whillyard, M., Formulation of Cake Doughnuts (An Update). AIB Research Department Technical Bulletin, 2002. XXIV(9).  

2. Lawson, H., Food Oils and Fats, Technology, Utilization and Nutrition. 1995: Chapman & Hall.   

3. Laucke Flour Mills premix recommendations  

4. How do I produce yeast-raised donuts? (Copyright © 1993 Dawn Food Products, Inc.) 


Recommended further reading:  

Donuts Hints and Tips (Goodman Fielder Food Services)
Recommendations and troubleshooting donut production problems   

Cake Donut Premix (Laucke Flour Mills)
Method of using cake donut premix and troubleshooting problems  

Yeast-raised Donut Premix (Laucke Flour Mills)
Method of using yeast-raised donut premix  

Frequently Asked Questions – Doughnuts (AIB Online)   

Troubleshooting Cake Donuts (Belshaw)
Cake Donut Basics, How do I produce yeast-raised donuts? and Troubleshooting Cake Donuts   

Troubleshooting Guides (Dawn Food Products)
Something not working quite right? Troubleshooting cake donuts, yeast-raised donuts, donut glaze, donut icing presented in table form (problems/possible causes) by Dawn Food Products.   

Technical Bulletins at American Institute of Baking website
(requires subscription to technical bulletins online to access full text of documents)   

Stay abreast of all aspects of baking and allied industries with bulletins published by AIB’s Research Department staff and guest contributors. Technical bulletins on doughnuts include cake doughnuts formulation, processing, frying fat, coating sugar, and technology of yeast-raised doughnuts.

Doughnuts – Origins and Other Stories (An RVO Special Research)

A compilation of its early origins, legends, the first donut chains, how doughnuts came to Australia and other stories

A special research by RVO Enterprises

Early origins

The arrival into America of European immigrants, along with their culinary traditions would have shaped the doughnut to the form it is known today. A widely accepted origin is that Dutch immigrants, living in Colonial New Amsterdam, now Manhattan, introduced the precursor of the modern-day doughnut in America with their deep fried olykoecks, or oily cake. Cultural anthropologist Paul Mullins, finds the 1669 Dutch recipe for “olie-koechken” closely resembles today’s doughnuts.[1]

These small deep fried flat cakes – are crisp on the outside and soft in the middle. To avoid leaving the centre soft & mushy, apples, prunes, or raisins, and sometimes nuts, were used to fill the centre of the dough which probably gave rise to the name “dough-nuts”.  

How the doughnut got its hole

Part of an image accompanying the article 'The Hole Truth of America's Sweetest Snack' by Martin Abramson, Boy's Life, Dec 1980. Illustrated by John Huehnergarth.

How the doughnut got its hole is attributed to the exploits of Capt Hanson Gregory while he was at sea in 1847. Frustrated that the insides of the fried cakes were still raw dough while the edges are all done, he said, “Why wouldn’t a space inside solve the difficulty?” Then he took the cover off the ship’s tin pepper box and cut into the middle of the doughnut “the first hole ever seen by mortal eyes!” Returning home, Capt Gregory showed his mother how to make the doughnuts, and from then on doughnuts were made with holes in the middle.[2] 

Whether Gregory’s story is true or not, in his hometown in Maine a bronze tablet honours him as the man who put the hole in the doughnut.   

Doughnuts place in history during World War 1 
For a time, doughnuts were made available by small local bakeries or by housewives who baked them at home. It is only after World War I that doughnuts gained popularity in the States.  

The Salvation Army lassies serving donuts during the war. Photo from

In August 1917, the Salvation Army served doughnuts to soldiers fighting the war near Montier France. Word spread and before long, the Salvation Army making doughnuts wherever the war is being fought has become tradition.  

Returning home from the war, the soldiers came back with a taste for doughnuts. Demand for doughnuts soon grew, and in 1920, Adolph Levitt created the first doughnut making machine and started selling these machines to bakeries. He founded the Doughnut Corporation of America and also sold doughnuts and prepared flour mixes under the brand “Mayflower”.  

The first Mayflower store opened in 1931 in New York City and soon 18 shops were opened across the country, the first of the successful doughnut chains.[3]  

Doughnuts in Australia
“Doughnuts” were first mentioned in Australian newspapers as far back as 1845. These articles were extracts of stories or news that were originally published in North America, often about the English and their experiences as new migrants.    

from The Sydney Morning Herald, March 1845

The Sydney Morning Herald, on March 1845, printed an article “English Extracts: Sam Slick’s Opinion of the English, which contained the line, “Who does the preservin’, or makes the pies and apple-sauce and dough-nuts?”  

In another article “The Australian Trade – The Arrival of the Ship Eagle” (The Sydney Morning Herald, Dec 1851), it was written: “The American Union says, ‘They are paid two dollars a day and roast beef (or doughnuts, as they please!) for their services – and they should either work or resign.'”  

“Our New York Letter” (The Mercury, Aug 1889), mentioned that in Brooklyn, “you can get 2 fish balls, a cup of coffee, and a donut for 10 cents” for breakfast.  

from The Maitland Mercury, May 1889

By the 1890s, doughnuts were already part of the Australian table fare (Feeding Alphabetically, The Maitland Mercury, May 1889). A doughnut recipe of that time calls for: one cup of sugar,  one tablespoon of cream, one cup of sour milk sweetened with soda, nutmeg grated and flour to roll (Good Cakes without Eggs, The Maitland Mercury, Nov 1891).   

The 1920s saw an increased American influence on food, as sundae shops and soda fountains and big American food companies arrived.[4] 

American doughnuts have quickly gained popularity and became a standard fare at church stalls, fairs and other events (American Doughnuts for Children, The Argus, July 1939).   

Advertisement for Downyflake Donuts in Canberra Times, July 1954

In 1948, Adolph Levitt’s company The Doughnut Corporation of America or DCA partnered with the Overseas Corporation (Aust) Ltd to become Downyflake Food Corporation Pty Ltd to develop the making of doughnuts in Australia. (The Sydney Morning Herald, June 1948).   

In 1949, Anthony Horderns’ Do-Nut Depot, on Pitt Street Sydney, advertised its “Do-Nuts”, made by their “wonderful new Robot machine”. (The Sunday Herald, Dec 1949)   

First Donut Chain in Australia – Downyflake Donuts

In October 1950, DCA’s Downyflake Donuts store opened in Chadstone Shopping Centre, the first shopping centre in Victoria and the largest in the Southern Hemisphere. Downyflake Donuts operated several more stores in different locations in Australia. 

The automatic machines fascinated many young kids who watched the doughnuts cooking on the shiny doughnut machine by the shop’s window.  

A mining metallurgist, Chris Shaw, in his article “Peak oil – keep your eye on the donut and not the hole”, wrote about his memories of Downyflake donuts at Chadstone Shopping Centre as a young boy. “Better than the escalators; better than everything else, was the Downyflake Donut shop. The donut machine stood in the window. Embryonic donuts danced and grew in the hot oil as they meandered through the stainless steel maze. That little food processor amused me for hours.”[5] 

Actor Barry Humphries (alter ego Dame Edna Everage) also has an interesting recollection of the iconic Downyflakes donuts. 

"Downyflake" restaurant (white building, second from right) in Swanston Street. Circa 1950. Copyright State Library Victoria

In his speech at the anniversary dinner of the Committee for Melbourne, he fondly recalled, “One of the most important Melbourne spectacles of this period was an establishment in Swanston Street opposite St Paul’s Cathedral called Downey Flake. Here crowds pressed against the window awestruck to observe an enormous Heath Robinson-like stainless steel machine which stirred a vat of yellow sludge, scooped dollops onto a conveyer belt and dropped calamari like rings into a cauldron of seething fat from which emerged, on another belt, an endless succession of sugared doughnuts”.[6]

Downyflake sign, Swanston Street, Melbourne. circa 1950. Copyright Mark Strizic.

Downyflakes ceased operations in Australia in the early 1980s. 

Introduction of the donut robots in Australia
Improvements on the doughnut making machines and production systems continued in America. In 1928, one of Walter Belshaw’s patent application for a new doughnut machine, stated that, unlike the existing machines that have pistons coming in direct contact with the dough, continuously kneading it and resulting in tougher and less palatable doughnuts, his new invention eliminated that problem, has a more efficient adjustment mechanism, and has a detachable cylinder to allow interchangeable parts. 

Belshaw Donut Robot MarkII

Belshaw continued to improve the doughnut machines and by 1963, the first of the Belshaw “donut robots” were sold in Australia. Bob O’Mara, who founded RVO Enterprises in 1981, was instrumental in making the Belshaw donut machines the preferred donut equipment in Australia. Today, there are about 8,000 of these donut robots in existence in the country.   

In 1988, mini donuts were introduced in the market. These small doughnuts, about 20 grams each, proved to be very successful and are still popular until today.   

For more information about donut machines (fryers, donut production systems, Thermoglaze system, accessories) contact RVO Enterprises at 02 9740 5122, send an email to, or enquire through RVO Info Central by sending your comment at the bottom of this article.



1. Mullins, P.R., Glazed America: a history of the doughnut. 2008.

2. ‘Old Salt’ Doughnut hole inventor tells just how discovery was made and stomachs of earths saved in The Washington Post. 1916.   

3. Doughnut King was head of several chains, in The Canadian Jewish Review. 1954.    

4. The Cambridge World History of Food, Kiple, K and Ornelas, ed. 2000. 

5. Shaw, C. Peak oil – keep your eye on the donut and not the hole.  2005; Available from:   

6. Humphries, B., Return of a Passionate Pilgrim, in The Age 2005: Melbourne.


External links: 

Belshaw donut robots

Doughnut: The Official Story 

Doughnut Hole and Hanson Gregory

Return of a Passionate Pilgrim

The Hole Truth of America’s Sweetest Snack
view in Google Books Boy’s Life, Dec 1980 article

Steinberg, Sally Levitt., The donut book : the whole story in words, pictures & outrageous tales. 2004, North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing. vii, 184 p.
Sally Levitt Steinberg, granddaughter of Adolph Levitt, who developed the first donut-making machine, tells the story of how donuts became popular in America and other tales about donuts. Inside this book are 29 donut recipes from New Orleans beignets to Portuguese malasadas, from Boston crèmes to Alain Ducasse’s upscale Donut.

Green Tea Donuts at Riingo. Image courtesy of

Here, in Steinberg’s book, you will also find the recipe for “Green Tea Donuts” created by Marcus Samuelsson, for his Japanese/American restaurant Riingo in New York. Made with potatoes and injected with “green tea jam” (edamame – green soy beans, and yuzu, a Japanese citrus fruit), accompanied by a cinnamon sabayon, green tea kulfi, and a chutney of exotic fresh and dried fruits and spices (preserved lemon, dried cranberries, fresh quince, cardamom pods, fenugreek seeds).

Suas, Michel & Frank Wing Photography (2009). Advanced bread and pastry : a professional approach Delmar Vengage Learning, Detroit
The Chapter on Plated Desserts feature a sophisticated donut recipe. Two warm donuts dusted in sugar and spice nestle alongside a frozen parfait loaded with vanilla beans and a tiny shot of hot chocolate. The miniature drink contains three layers: a rich ganache on the bottom, a hot chocolate in the middle, and a feather-light milk foam topping. Described as a modern interpretation of comfort food at its most tempting.